# GATE Syllabus For Biotechnology 2024 – Sections-wise GATE Biotechnology Syllabus

21 January, 2024 By Artika Shah, IMS

GATE Biotechnology is one of 29 disciplines in which the GATE exam is conducted each year & provides aspirants with a strategy for planning their preparation. The candidates who select biotechnology as their subject should check the complete GATE Biotechnology Syllabus to know what topics to prepare for. The GATE Syllabus For Biotechnology 2024 is released by IIT Kanpur on its official website. The GATE Biotechnology syllabus covers topics and subtopics from the graduate level, which may be asked in the exam. The key to clearing the GATE exam is to understand the syllabus thoroughly.

# Sections of GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2024:

• Engineering Mathematics
• Genetics and Cellular Biology
• Recombinant DNA Technology and other tools in Biotechnology
• Fundamentals of Biological Engineering
• Plant, Animal Microbial Biotechnology
• Bioprocess Engineering Process Biotechnology.
• General Biotechnology

Let’s look at each section of the GATE 2024 syllabus for Biotechnology (BT):

1. Engineering Mathematics Syllabus for Biotechnology

The Engineering Mathematics section of the GATE Biotechnology Syllabus is a prerequisite to many engineering courses in the GATE examination. Engineering Mathematics Syllabus comprises sections like calculus, linear algebra, analysis of complex variables, differential equations, numerical methods, and probability and statistics. Below is a breakdown of the topics:

 Section Topics Linear Algebra Linear Algebra includes topics such as systems of linear equations, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, consistency and rank, Eigenvalues, and Eigenvectors. Calculus Calculus covers topics including theorem of integral values, mean value theorems, partial derivatives, minima and maxima, Fourier series, multiple integrals, line, vector identities, surface and volume integrals, Green’s theorems, Stokes and Gauss. Differential Equations The differential equations include first-order equations, second-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, and solution of partial differential equations: Variable separable method. Analysis of complex variables Analysis of complex variables covers topics such as Cauchy’s integral theorem, analytic functions, integral formula, Residue theorem, Taylor’s and Laueant’s series, and solution of integrals. Probability and Statistics Probability and Statistics include topics such as standard deviation, sampling theorems, conditional probability, mode, mean, median, variance and standard deviation, and Random variables: Discrete and continuous distributions, normal, Poisson, and binomial distributions. Numerical Methods Numerical Methods cover topics such as solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, Matrix inversions, numerical integration, iterative methods for solving differential equations, and correlation analysis.

## 2. General Biotechnology Syllabus

This section of general biotechnology includes important topics such as:
1. Competence
2. Uncompetitive Inhibition
3. Immunization

Here are some topics to consider:

 Sections Topics Biochemistry Biomolecules– Structure and function, Molecular motors, Biological membranes, transport processes, and action potential, lipids, amino acids, and nucleic acids, basic concepts and regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates, photosynthesis, respiration, and electron transport chain. Microbiology The microbiology section involves bacterial classification and diversity. Microbial Ecology– Microbes in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems, and Microbial interactions. Viruses include- Structure and classification, methods in microbiology, microbial growth and nutrition, nitrogen fixation, microbial diseases and host-pathogen interactions, antibiotics, and anti-microbial resistance. Immunology Immunology covers topics like innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell-mediated immunity, anti-body structure and function, the molecular basis of antibody diversity, T cell, and B cell development, antigen-antibody reaction, complement, primary and secondary lymphoid organs, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), antigen processing and presentation, polyclonal and monoclonal antibody, regulation of immune response, immune response tolerance, hypersensitivity, auto-immunity, Graft versus host reaction, immunization, and vaccines.

## 3. Genetics and Cellular Biology Syllabus

Genetic and Cellular Biology Syllabus of GATE Syllabus For Biotechnology (BT) covers topics like:
1.  Extracellular Matrix
2. Genetic Disorders
3. Molecular Structure of genes and chromosomes.

Below are some key topics covered in this section:

1. Genetics and Evolutionary Biology: This section of GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2024 covers topics like gene interaction, Mendelian inheritance, linkage, complementation, recombination and chromosome mapping, extrachromosomal inheritance, microbial genetics- transformation, transduction and conjugation, Chromosomal variation, Genetic disorders, Population genetics, Epigenetics, Selection and inheritance, horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements, Adaptive and neutral evolution, Genetic drift, Species, and speciation.

2. Cell Biology: The topics covered by Cell Biology include the cell cycle and cell growth control, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure, cell signaling, signal transduction, protein trafficking, post-translational modifications, protein trafficking, extracellular matrix, cell death, and autophagy.

3. Molecular Biology:  Molecular Biology encompasses topics like regulation of gene expression, the molecular structure of genes and chromosomes, mutations and mutagenesis, nucleic acid- Replication, splicing, translation, and their regulatory mechanism, non-coding and micro RNA, RNA interference, DNA damage, and repair.

4. Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology Syllabus:

The  Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology section of GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2024, includes important topics like Filtration, tuning of controllers, and Thiele modulus.

The key topics covered in this section include:

• Upstream and Downstream processing:  Upstream and Downstream processing encompasses a variety of topics like media formulation and optimization, sterilization of air and media, filtration- membrane filtration, ultra-filtration, Centrifugation- High speed and ultra, Cell disruption, Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration, affinit, GC, FPLC, HPLC, adsorption, drying, and extraction.
• Bioreaction Engineering:  Bioreaction Engineering consists of topics like first-order kinetics, rate law, zero, and first-order kinetics. Ideal reactors- Batch, mixed flow, and plug flow, Enzyme immobilization, diffusion effects – Thiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkoehler number, Kinetics of cell growth, substrate utilization, and product formation, Structured and unstructured models, batch, fed-batch, and continuous processes, Microbial and enzyme reactors, Optimization and scale-up.
• Process Control and Instrumentation: The topics included under process control and instrumentation are temperature, pressure, flow measurement devices, first-order systems, valves, feedback, and feed-forward control, type of controllers- integral control, proportional, derivative, and integral control, and tuning of controllers.

## 4. Syllabus of Plant, Animal, and Microbial Biotechnology

The plant, animal, and microbial biotechnology of the GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2024 encompasses of topics like:
1. Plastid Transformation
2. Methodology
3. Culture Media Composition
4. Growth Conditions
5. Antibiotics
6. Biofuels

The important topics covered in this section are:

 Section Topics Plants Protoplast fusion – Somatic hybrid and cybrid, Transgenic plants– direct and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques, Selection marker and reporter gene, Plastid transformation. Totipotency– Regeneration of plants, Plant growth regulators and elicitors, Tissue culture, and cell suspension culture system – Methodology, the kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization, production of secondary metabolites, hairy root culture, plant products of industrial importance, artificial seeds, Somaclonal variation, Protoplast, Animals Animal cell and tissue preservation, culture media composition and growth conditions, anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture, micro-macro-carrier culture, Kinetics of cell growth, micro-macro carrier culture, animal cloning, hybridoma technology, transgenic animals, stem cell technology, knock-out, and knock-in animals. Microbes Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites– Industrial Enzymes, Biofuels, bioplastic, large-scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites, clinical food, industrial microbiology, screening strategies  new products. for

6. Syllabus of Recombinant DNA Technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology
Recombinant DNA technology and other tools in biotechnology are an important section of the GATE Biotechnology Syllabus. This includes  topics like:
1. RAPD
2. DNA library
3. Enzymatic assays
4. RFLP, UV
5. Gene prediction and visible.

Molecular Tools: Molecular Tools covers topics like southern and northern blotting, DNA/RNA labeling and sequencing, DNA fingerprinting, RFLP, RAPD, gene transfer technologies, site-directed mutagenesis, CRISPR-CAS, biosensors, and biosensing.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Recombinant DNA Technology includes topics like Restriction and modification enzymes, Vectors – plasmids, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes, Expression vectors, cDNA and genomic DNA library, Gene isolation, and cloning, strategies for the production of recombinant proteins, Transposons, and gene targeting.

Analytical Tools:

Principles of microscopy- Electron, light, fluorescent and confocal

Principles of spectroscopy- Visible, UV, IR, CD, fluorescence, MS,NMR, FT-IR, micro-arrays, electrophoresis, Immunoassay

Enzymatic Assays– RIA, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, whole-genome, and CHIP-sequencing.

Computational Tools: Computational Tools covers topics like search tools and bioinformatics resources, sequence and structure databases, sequence analysis- Sequence file formats, alignment, scoring matrices, genomics, phylogeny, metabolomics, proteomics, phylogeny, metabolomics, functional annotation, gene prediction, secondary structure, and 3D structure prediction, metagenomics, knowledge discovery in biochemical databases, systems biology, and metabolic engineering.

### Paper Pattern for GATE Syllabus For Biotechnology (BT)

 Paper Biotechnology Paper Code BT Examination Mode Computer Based Test Duration 3 hrs (180 mins) Marking scheme (a) Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) (b) Multiple Select Questions (MSQ) and/or Numerical Answer Type (NAT) Questions Negative Marking For a wrong answer selected in an MCQ, a negative mark will be given. For 1-mark MCQ: 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. For 2-mark MCQ: 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. NO negative marking for MSQ & NAT. Number of Questions 10 (GA) + 55 (subject) = 65 Questions General Aptitude (GA) Marks 15 marks Subject Marks 85 marks Total marks 100 marks

#### Books for GATE Syllabus For Biotechnology (BT)

The table below mentions the best books for preparing the syllabus for GATE Biotechnology exam:

 Books Publisher/Author Biotechnology Pranav Kumar GATE Biotechnology GK Publishers Bioprocess Engineering Principles P. Doran Immunology Kuby Molecular Cell Biology Lodish and Baltimore Fundamentals of Biochemistry Lehninger