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# GATE 2025 Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering (IN)

21 January, 2024
Artika Shan

GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering (IN) 2025 outlines the topics and subtopics covered in the instrumentation engineering discipline. The exam question papers are formulated based on the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus. The best way to ensure high scores is to plan and strategise for the exam preparation based on the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus.

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GATE 2025 Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus

The topics and concepts included under the branch of instrumentation engineering are divided into ten main sections in the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus. The ten sections include:

1. Engineering and Mathematics
2. Electricity and Magnetism
3. Electrical Circuits and Machines
4. Signals and Systems
5. Control Systems
6. Analog Electronics
7. Digital Electronics
8. Sensors
9. Industrial Instrumentation
10. Communication and Optical Instrumentation.

Sections of the GATE IN Syllabus 2025
Below are the sections of the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus:

Section 1:
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra:
The topics covered in this section are matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, and Eigenvectors.

Differential Equations: This section includes first-order equations (linear and nonlinear), second-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, variable separable method, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, solution of partial differential equations, initial and boundary value problems and variable separable method.

Calculus: The topics covered in this section are theorems of integral calculus, mean value theorems, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, partial derivatives, vector identities, Fourier series, line, surface, and volume integrals, Gauss and Green’s theorems, and Stokes.

Analysis of complex variables: The topics covered in this section are Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, residue theorem, and solutions of integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Conditional probability, sampling theorems, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and variance, discrete and continuous distributions, random variables, normal, Poisson, and binomial distributions are the topics covered in this section.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, matrix inversion, numerical integration, iterative methods of solving differential equations, regression, and correlation analysis are some topics covered in this section on numerical methods.

Section 2:
Electricity and Magnetism:
The topics included in this section are:

• Coulomb’s Law
• Electric Flux Density
• Electric field Intensiy
• Gauss’s Law
• Divergence
• Electric Field and Potential due to point, line, plane, and spherical charge distributions
• Effect of the dielectric medium
• The capacitance of simple configurations
• Biot-Savart’s Law
• Ampere’s Law
• Lorentz Force
• Inductance
• Magnetomotive Force
• Reluctance
• Magnetic Circuits
• Self and Mutual Inductance of simple configurations.

Section 3:
Electrical Circuits and Machines:

• Voltage and Current Sources: The topics covered in this section are independent, dependent, ideal, and practical, v-i relationships of the resistor, mutual inductance and capacitor, inductor, and transient analysis of RLC circuits with DC excitation.
• Mesh and Nodal analysis, Kirchoff’s laws, Thevenin, superposition, Norton, maximum power transfer, and reciprocity theorems.
• Peak, Average, and RMS Values of AC quantities, active and reactive powers, impedance and admittance, phasor analysis, series, and parallel resonance, the realization of basic filters with L, C, and R elements, locus diagrams, transient analysis of RLC circuits with AC excitation.
• One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open and short circuit parameters.
• Single phase Transformer:
Topics under this section include:
1. Phasor Diagram
2. Equivalent circuit
3. Open and short circuit test
4. Regulation and efficiency

Three-phase induction motors :
1. Periodic, Aperiodic, and Impulse Signals
2. Laplace
3. Fourier and Z-transforms
4. Transfer function
5. Frequency response of first and second linear time-invariant system
6. The impulse response of systems
7. Convolution
8. Correlation

Discrete-Time system: Impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function, DFT, FFT, Basics of IIR and FIR filters

Section 4:
Signals and Systems

The topics covered in this section are Laplace, periodic, aperiodic, and impulse signals, Z-transformers and Fourier, the frequency response of first and second-order linear time-invariant systems, the impulse response of systems, correlation, and convolution. Other topics include the Discrete time system that provides for impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function, FFT and DFT, and basics of IIR and FIR filters.

Section 5:
Control Systems
The topics of this section include signal flow graphs, feedback principles, steady-state errors, transient response, bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, time-delay systems, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves, on-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward and ratio controllers, sizing of control valves and PID controllers.

Section 6:
Analog Electronics:
The topics covered in this section are:

• Characteristics and applications of diode
• Zener Diode
• BJT and MOSFET
• Small Signal analysis or Transistor Circuits
• Feedback Amplifiers
• Characteristics of Ideal and Practical Operational Amplifiers
• Application of OPAMPS
• Added, Subtractor, Integrator, Differentiator, Difference Amplifier
• Instrumentation Amplifier
• Precision Rectifier
• Active Filters
• Oscillators
• Signal Generators
• Voltage-controlled oscillators and phase-locked loop
• Sources and Effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits

Section 7:
Digital Electronics
This section includes topics like:

• Combinational logic Circuits
• Minimization of Boolean Functions
• IC Families: TTL and CMOS
• Arithmetic Circuits, Comparators, Schmitt Trigger
• Multi-vibrators, Sequential circuits
• Flip flops, Shift Registers, Timers, and Counters
• Sample-and-hold circuit
• Multiplexer
• Analog-to-digital (Successive approximation, integrating, flash, and sigma-delta)
• Digital-to-analog converters (Weighted R, R-2R ladder, and current steering logic.)
• Characteristics of ADC and DAC (Resolution, Quantization, Significant bits, Conversion/Settling time)
• Basics of number systems
• Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications
• Memory and input-output interfacing
• Basics of data acquisition systems
• Basics of distributed control systems (DCS)
• Programmable logic controllers (PLC).

Section 8:
Measurements:

• SI units
• Standards (R, L, C Voltage, Current, and Frequency)
• Systematic and Random errors in measurement
• Expression of uncertainty- Accuracy and Precision
• Propagation of errors
• Linear and Weighted Regression
• Bridges: Wheatstone, Meghom, Kelvin, Anderson, Maxwell, Schering, and Wien for measurement of R, L,C, and frequency.
• Q-meter
• Measurement of voltage, current, and power in single and three-phase circuits
• AC and DC current probes
• True RMS Meters
• Voltage and Current Scaling
• Instrument Transformers
• Timer/Counter
• Time, Phase, and Frequency Measurements
• Digital Voltmeter
• Digital Multimeter
• Oscilloscope
• Shielding and Grounding

Section 9:
Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation

• Resistive- Capacitive- Inductive- Piezoelectric
• Hall Effect Sensors and Associated Signal Conditioning Circuits
• Transducers for industrial instrumentation
• Displacement (Linear and Angular)
• Velocity, Acceleration, Torque, Force, Vibration, Shock, Pressure (including low pressure)
• Flow (Variable head, Variable Area, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters)
• Temperature (Thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (¾ wire)
• Thermistors, Pyrometers, and Semiconductors
• Liquid level
• pH, conductivity, and viscosity measurement
• 4-20 two-wire transmitter

Section 10:
Communication and Optical Instrumentation
The topics included in this section are:

• Amplitude and Frequency modulation and demodulation
• Shannon’s sampling theorem
• Pulse code modulation
• Frequency and time division multiplexing
• Pulse shift keying for digital modulation
• Optical sources and detectors: LED, photo-diode, light-dependent resistor, square law detectors, and their characteristics
• Interferometer: Applications in metrology, basics of fiber optic sensing
1. UV-VIS Spectrophotometers
2. Mass Spectrometer

### GATE 2025 Instrumentation Engineering Marking Scheme: Below is the marking scheme for the GATE Instrumentation Engineering exam paper:

• General Aptitude (GA) of Instrumentation Engineering (IN): 15 marks
• Subject Marks: 85 marks
• Total marks: 100 marks
• Total time allotted in minutes for the subject: 180 minutes

Section weightage of the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus

There are three sections in the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus:
1. General Aptitude (GA) – 15%
2. Engineering Mathematics- 13%
3. Instrumentation Engineering: 72%

Frequently asked questions on GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering (IN)

1. What is the GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering
The GATE IN Syllabus 2025 carries sections based on which the GATE IN  exam will be formulated. It includes three main sections including:
1. Engineering Mathematics
2. General Aptitude
3. Core Discipline -IN
2. Is there any change in GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering?
There is no major change in the GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering and the GATE IN Syllabus 2025 is anticipated to be almost the same as the syllabus for 2023.
3. How can I download the main (official) GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus?
IISc Bangalore will be releasing the official GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus on its official website.
4. Who will release the GATE IN Syllabus 2025?
The IISc Bangalore will be releasing the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus on its official website only. IISc Bangalore is the exam conducting body of the forthcoming GATE Exam.
5. How can I prepare the GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering?
The candidates can prepare for the GATE Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus by following the preparation tips:
1. Identify the important topics
2. Understand the exam pattern
3. Attempt mock tests
4. Refer to standard books.
1. What are the important books for GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering?
The best books included in the GATE IN Syllabus 2025 are:
1. Network Analysis- M.E. Van Valkenburg
2. Advanced Engineering Mathematics- RK Jain
3. Fundamentals of Electric Circuits- Charles K, Alexander.